Unfortunatly there is no one document focused on security that is enough for someone that wants to build themselves up well. The best place to start as with anything else is to gain information on it. Find whitepapers about security. Try to get your hands on documentation about securing your network. There is of course the saying that the best way to have a secure network is to break security. However there is also more than one way to do everything. So if you close up one way that you found in, there is probably about 10 or 100 differnt ways of doing it that you never though of. This poses the problem of, as long as you have a connection to the internet if someone really wants to, you will be hacked. That is just the way about it, as long as you have an active connection to the internet there is NO way for it to be 100% secure. There is always a way.
Keeping that in mind you just have to put up the best security possible, which would involve find documents that have to deal with holes in your Operating system or in the software you are running and patch them, and for godsakes, use common sense!
So long story short go here: http://www.cert.org/tech_tips/home_networks.html#IV http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/network/2000/06/09/magazine/firewall.html http://networking.earthweb.com/netsecur/article.php/624471 http://www.paktribune.com/news/index.php?id=52875
By all means they are not EVERYTHING you need, but they are a good place to start